— An Update

By Eric Goldman

Judge Alex Kozinski recently guest lectured in my Cyberspace Law course, which prompted me to reread Kozinski’s opinion in the Kremen v. Cohen case. Because that opinion came out in 2003, it made me curious–what’s happened to the lawsuit and the domain name since then?

Before getting into specifics, a quick recap. The story has been oft-told, yet it’s such a classic tale that it bears repeating. In early 1994, an enterprising Gary Kremen registered with Network Solutions back when registrants could register domain names for free with just an email. In Oct. 1995, an interloper, Stephen Cohen, “stole” the domain name by submitting forged transfer papers to NSI. When Kremen discovered the transfer and demanded that NSI fix its mistake, NSI shrugged its shoulders and said to Kremen that he would have to go to court to resecure the domain name. Kremen did exactly that, sparking a decade-long legal battle over perhaps the most valuable domain name of all time. In the interim, Cohen allegedly reaped enormous profits (at least $40M, maybe hundreds of millions) from during the time he possessed it.

The legal battle can be organized into 3 different fronts.

Kremen against Stephen Cohen

Kremen’s first attack was against the interloper, Cohen. Kremen won a $65M judgment (which included a $25M punitive damages award) against Cohen in 2001. However, as I stress in my Cyberspace Law course, winning a judgment is a win only if it’s enforceable. In this case, Cohen did everything possible to frustrate collection by fleeing the country (to Mexico, then Monte Carlo, and back to Mexico) and using clever machinations to move his money offshore and out of reach. Kremen was able to execute against 2 homes of Cohen’s, including a house in upscale Rancho Santa Fe outside of San Diego that Kremen still uses as a personal residence. Meanwhile, based on Cohen’s repeated acts in contravention of the judge’s orders, the judge issued a contempt order and arrest warrant for Cohen.

After Kremen unsuccessfully offered $50,000 to bounty hunters to find Cohen, there was a break in the case in October 2005. Cohen was located in Tijuana, arrested by the Mexican police and extradited to the US. The judge has demanded that Cohen spill the beans about the location of the money, and Cohen refuses to do so. As a result, Cohen still sits in jail on the contempt order.

Kremen against Network Solutions

When it looked like Cohen wasn’t going to pay up, Kremen went after Network Solutions as the domain name registrar, alleging breach of contract and conversion. The district court rejected the claims, but on appeal, Judge Kozinski reversed the conversion claim dismissal, concluding that California law permits intangible assets to be converted. The case was remanded to district court, but NSI settled the case in 2004. The settlement amount was confidential, but reports have put the amount at $20M.

Reading through the opinion again, I was struck by how Kozinksi’s arguments could be used to support a conversion claim for other types of intangible assets, such as virtual world assets. I probed Kozinski on this very point in my class, and in his mind there’s a distinction between assets taken within the game rules and outside the game rules.

I think this is right, but it may depend on the defendant. In the Kremen v. NSI case, the defendant was the service provider; but this was a truly unique situation where the customer (Kremen) and the service provider (NSI) didn’t have a valid contract for the domain name registration because domain names were free. Thus, there was no consideration from Kremen for the domain name registration contract. In contrast, there is typically an airtight contract between the VW user and the service provider, and that contract will likely contain provisions that protect the service provider from any liability for asset conversion. I don’t think Kozinski’s reasoning could be read to extend conversion liability to the service provider in the face of such a contract. However, some other interloper who takes a virtual world asset outside of game rules could face conversion liability under the Ninth Circuit rule.

One more point about this case. When Kozinski’s Ninth Circuit decision was issued, a number of commentators hailed it as a landmark case on protection of cyberproperty. It might ultimately be that, but I did a citation count and there are actually a surprisingly small number of cases citing to it so far (and none of particular note). So I personally think the Ninth Circuit decision is so fact-specific (service provider conversion of an intangible asset without any governing contract) that it’s unlikely to be a true watershed decision.

Kremen against ARIN

The battle has quietly spilled onto a third front. As part of Kremen’s 2001 judgment against Cohen, the court imposed a constructive trust on all of Cohen’s assets, including a large block of IP addresses assigned by ARIN. ARIN has refused to transfer the block as Kremen has asked, instead directing Kremen to follow ARIN’s internal transfer policies, which Kremen apparently refuses to do. So in April 2006, Kremen sued ARIN for antitrust violations, conversion, unfair business practices and breach of fiduciary duties. See the complaint in Kremen v. American Registry for Internet Numbers (N.D. Cal.).

This is a case worth watching. ARIN is a relatively obscure and insular group, and over the years I have heard lots of frustration about their IP address block allocations and restrictions on transfer. This lawsuit has the potential to challenge these practices and change the process for IP address block allocations.

The Status Today

In Jan. 2006, Kremen sold the domain name to a low-profile pornography company, Escom, for $12M-14M. As a result, Kremen has received, so far, over $30M and 2 properties for the domain name, plus a pending $65M judgment (now over $80M including interest) against Cohen, plus any ongoing revenues he generated during the time he possessed the domain name. Talk about a lucrative domain name!

Earlier this month, Escom announced a strategic partnership with Playboy Enterprises, with the practical consequence that has turned into a marketing portal for Playboy’s content. Given the apparent value of this domain name, I’m sure we haven’t heard the last word on its exploitation.

If you are interested in more of this story, Kieren McCarthy is publishing a book,, in Britain in 2007.

UPDATE: Violet Blue writes an entertaining recap.