Trademark Owner Can’t Hold GoDaddy Liable for Domain Name Forwarding — Berhad v. GoDaddy
[Post by Venkat Balasubramani]
Berhad v. GoDaddy, C 09-5939 PJH (N.D. Cal.; Jan. 3, 2012)
Plaintiff, Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas), a government owned entity, owns the Petronas Towers in Malaysia. It’s trying to enforce its trademark rights against two domain names (petronastowers.net and petronastower.net). In mid-2010, it quickly obtained relief against both domain names, via in rem actions. These aren’t the disputes before the court. Prior to obtaining in rem relief against the domain names, Petronas urged GoDaddy to disable the website and domain names (the domain names were registered to GoDaddy and GoDaddy provided forwarding services, which pointed the domain names to porn sites). GoDaddy demurred, stating that as the registrar, it could not adjudicate Petronas’s cybersquatting claim and since it did not host the underlying sites, it couldn’t process Petronas’s trademark infringement claim. Petronas is trying to hold GoDaddy liable for not ‘disabling’ the domain name and website at Petronas’s urging. It asserted claims for cybersquatting and contributory cybersquatting against GoDaddy. Its hook for trying to hold GoDaddy liable? GoDaddy “used” the domain names by providing forwarding services for its customers.
Cybersquatting claim: GoDaddy argued that it was covered by the ACPA’s safe harbor. It also argued that two of the three ACPA elements ((1) use; (2) confusingly similar domain name; (3) bad faith intent to profit) were not satisfied. The court does not rule on the safe harbor issue but agrees with GoDaddy that Petronas’s claims cannot withstand summary judgment.
The court finds that GoDaddy’s forwarding service does not amount to “use” of the domain names: “GoDaddy simply provided the infrastructure to the registrant to route the [domain names] to the website of his choosing.” It was a free service that GoDaddy provided to its domain name registration customers. Additionally, under the cybersquatting statute, only the registrant or its representative can “use” the domain name and potentially incur liability. Second, there was no evidence that GoDaddy harbored a bad faith intent to profit by providing forwarding services. It also did not charge for the service so it did not profit from the forwarding in any way.
Contributory Cybersquatting: As the court acknowledges, it’s unclear whether courts even recognize claims for contributory cybersquatting. (I blogged about a Western District of Washington case whre Judge Martinez allowed the claim to go forward at the early stages: “Court Allows Microsoft’s Claims for Contributory Cybersquatting and Dilution to Move Forward”; see also Eric’s post about SolidHost v. NameCheap: “Contributory Cybersquatting and the Impending Demise of Domain Name Proxy Services?”). The court analyzes the contributory cybersquatting claim under Perfect 10 and Lockheed and says that Petronas has to show that GoDaddy had knowledge and directly contributed to or induced the infringement. When the defendant provides a service the defendant can be held liable where it exercises “direct control and monitoring of the instrumentality” used to infringe. The court says that there is no evidence that GoDaddy exercised any type of control over the registrant’s use of the forwarding services. The court also says that Petronas has not shown that there is any bad faith by the registrant (the person who utilized GoDaddy’s forwarding services). According to the court, the registrant could have used the forwarding to “create mischief” or “annoy the owner of the Petronas mark” – he didn’t necessarily use the forwarding to “profit.” [This was a strange conclusion. I would have thought that the disposition of the in rem actions would conclusively establish bad faith intent to profit by the underlying registrant.]
Cancellation of Petronas’s Mark: GoDaddy asserted counterclaims and sought to cancel Petronas’s mark. Petronas argued that GoDaddy lacked standing to assert the claim for cancellation but the court rejects this: “GoDaddy has standing to seek cancellation because Petronas is using the registration as a sword against GoDaddy.” With respect to the merits of GoDaddy’s claim, the court says that factual issues preclude the grant of summary judgment. [Ouch. Petronas tries to hold GoDaddy liable, but all that's left of the lawsuit at this point is GoDaddy's claim for cancellation of Petronas's mark.]
The recently much-maligned GoDaddy may deserve a star for not caving to Petronas’s takedown notice, even at the risk of liability to GoDaddy. The court’s discussion alludes to the fact that registrars play a central role in the functioning of the internet as we know it. This just highlights the effect of GoDaddy’s conduct in other cases (e.g., the ex parte takedown cases Eric and I have blogged about). Of course, there’s also GoDaddy’s SOPA-support debacle, which resulted in a drain of domain names (including this one) away from GoDaddy. It’s unclear exactly what GoDaddy did in response to Petronas’s claims. While it did not cancel the forwarding, it did “assist Petronas in seeking a transfer order, and [locked] each domain.” In any event, GoDaddy deserves kudos for not summarily killing the forwarding that the registrant had in place.
The court’s treatment of Petronas’s direct infringement claim for cybersquatting spans many pages. The court ultimately concludes that GoDaddy provided services to the registrant in the nature of “infrastructure,” but still declines to consider GoDaddy’s claim that it was protected under the safe harbor. This is unfortunate because GoDaddy was forced to expend resources dealing with discovery and summary judgment; this may well influence GoDaddy’s future dealings with others who are similarly situated to Petronas. ACPA’s relevant registrar immunity provision (for damages) provides:
A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority shall not be liable for damages under this section for the registration or maintenance of a domain name for another absent a showing of bad faith intent to profit from such registration or maintenance of the domain name.
GoDaddy’s forwarding services arguably fall under “maintenance” of a domain name, but there’s not much discussion of GoDaddy’s immunity argument at all in the court’s order. The text of the immunity provision also leaves room for a damages claim where the plaintiff shows a “bad faith intent to profit.” This looks like unfortunate drafting that makes it tough for courts to grant immunity without consideration of fact-specific issues that are germane to the overall cybersquatting analysis. It would be nice for the immunity to distinguish between when the registrar is acting as a registrar and when it’s arguably trying to monetize domain names (e.g., through parking). (See: “Film Academy Targets GoDaddy Founder As Legal Fight Heats Up.”) Registrar immunity rulings are rare, but if there was ever a candidate for when it is appropriate, this was it. A scenario where registrars routinely comply with rightsholder requests and disable forwarding or DNS resolution would break the internet. The court recognizes as much in its background discussion of the case (“If registrars stopped performing the function of taking name server information and providing it to registries, the Internet would not function.”) Unfortunately, the court does not take the route of providing immunity. [The routing point is relevant to the overall SOPA discussion.]
The court analyzes the contributory claim under Lockheed’s test for contributory trademark infringement. Courts continue to assume the viability of a claim for contributory cybersquatting, but they rarely dig in. Courts also don’t seem to discuss the contours of a cause of action against the backdrop of registrar immunity. A broad cause of action for contributory cybersquatting against registrars is a work-around of the registrar immunity provisions. (As GoDaddy pointed out, it was precluded by the ICANN/UDRP rules from disabling the site pending resolution of Petronas’s claims, which were properly directed to a UDRP forum or a court.) I’m surprised the court did not take a much more critical look at Petronas’s claims here. Trying to hold GoDaddy liable for routing and pointing to DNS servers is a short step away from arguing that GoDaddy should be liable for forwarding. What’s next? Will Petronas sue Al Gore for its injuries because he invented the internet?
Petronas obtained the relief it sought: control or cancellation of the infringing domain names. It tried to hold GoDaddy liable because GoDaddy did not in effect disable access to the domain names. The court correctly rejects GoDaddy’s claims, but does not take the shortest possible route in doing so. The court should be cognizant of how its resolution of claims against GoDaddy will affect how GoDaddy reacts in the future to notices from rightsowners. The current trademark liability rules have resulted in a system where trademark owners can send takedown notices, typically to sites themselves. Rightsowners have pushed the envelope and through rulings such as Akanoc, are likely extending this to hosts as well. Petronas’s claims tried to take it one step further, and broaden this to the registrar level. The court rejects its attempt, albeit in a long-winded way.