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August 03, 2011
Newspaper's Discussion About Trademark Owner Protected as Nominative Use--1 800 GET THIN v. Hiltzik
By Eric Goldman
1 800 GET THIN v. Hiltzik, 2:11-cv-00505-ODW -E (C.D. Cal. July 25, 2011)
I'm sure any trademark experts reading this post are scratching their heads at the blog post title. Newspapers discussing a trademarked product qualify for the nominative use defense. Well, duh. Why is that even a question that needs to be answered?
Well, because sometimes trademark owners bring asinine lawsuits. In particular, this case may be part of an emerging trend in the surgical procedure industry to misuse trademark law as a weapon against unwanted criticism. See, e.g., the Lifestyle Lift cases (1, 2).
This case involves the Lap Band surgical procedure. 1 800 GET THIN is a marketing agent for the procedure. The LA Times has repeatedly criticized the Lap Band. In one passage, it arguably implied that 1 800 GET THIN provided the procedure rather than just marketed it. Even against a pushover defendant, this is a weak point to gripe about. But against a well-regarded journalistic institution like the LA Times, there's simply no point in tangling in court.
Yet, 1 800 GET THIN still cranked up the machinery of justice. Predictably, the court expends few words in tossing the false designation of origin claim on nominative use grounds. The court also tosses the Lanham Act false advertising claim because the news article was editorial content, not advertising. Rebecca digs into the doctrinal details.
This outcome was so predictable that most trademark litigators probably would have advised 1 800 GET THIN that it had no chance of winning and it should not even try. In fact, the LA Times may very well extract some cash out of 1 800 GET THIN for bringing such a weak case. The case doesn't mention an anti-SLAPP motion, but this case seems tailor-made for anti-SLAPP protection. Otherwise, it's a strong candidate for a Lanham Act fee shift and perhaps Rule 11 sanctions.
Despite the "sun rising in the East" nature of this case's legal outcome, I still wanted to highlight it because it reminds us that trademark law's overexpansive sweep creates several problem. (I discuss these concerns in more detail in my paper, Online Word of Mouth and its Implications for Trademark Law). First, to the extent such a thing exists, this was an example of trademark bullying. The LA Times isn't an easy target for bullying, but smaller defendants will just capitulate in the face of 1 800 GET THIN's trademark threats.
Second, the LA Times didn't make a trademark "use" at all. We should have never reached the nominative use defense because there was no trademark use in the first place. The fact that courts aren't gatekeeping at that level lets weak trademark cases get further than they should. In this situation, relying on the nominative use defense works fine in the Ninth Circuit but is dicey in other circuits that don't cleanly recognize a nominative use defense.
Third, if the LA Times doesn't get 100% compensation from 1 800 GET THIN, then a travesty still occurred even though the LA Times prevailed in court.
A final thought. Having seen so many such lawsuits, I must admit that I become more suspicious of any trademark owner who resorts to completely meritless trademark litigation. It makes me wonder what they are trying to hide. In this case, the fact that the Lap Band and 1 800 GET THIN desperately grasped at legal straws makes me more skeptical of the legitimacy of their offerings.
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