December 30, 2008
Doe v. SexSearch Affirmed by 6th Circuit, But Not on 230 Grounds
By Eric Goldman
Doe v. SexSearch.com, 2008 WL 5396830 (6th Cir. Dec. 30, 2008)
I previously summarized this case as follows:
Defendants operate a website that helps people hook up to have sex. Roe posted a profile saying that she was 18 and wanted sex. After Doe connected with Roe via the profile, they met offline at Roe's home and had "consensual" sex. But Roe was actually 14, and Doe was busted for felony statutory rape. Doe turned around and sued the website on 14 counts, which the court summarizes as claims that "(a) Defendants failed to discover Jane Roe lied about her age to join the website, or (b) the contract terms are unconscionable."
In August 2007, the district court dismissed the case. Frankly, I always thought this should be an easy case for the reason articulated by the district court judge: "Plaintiff clearly had the ability to confirm Jane Roe’s age when he met with her in person, before they had sex, yet failed to do so." But fitting the claim into legal doctrines is trickier, and the district court relied on both 47 USC 230 and substantive contract/marketing law to dismiss the case.
On appeal, the defendant fared no better, and the Sixth Circuit has little trouble dismissing the case. However, the Sixth Circuit disavows the district court's 47 USC 230 discussion:
we do not reach the question of whether the Communications Decency Act provides SexSearch with immunity from suit. We do not adopt the district court’s discussion of the Act, which would read § 230 more broadly than any previous Court of Appeals decision has read it, potentially abrogating all state- or common-law causes of action brought against interactive Internet services.
The court instead dissects the substantive contract and marketing law claims one-by-one (all 14 of them) to show why none of them were valid. The opinion is a pithy read, so if you're interested in seeing how an online contract survives a multi-front attack, check it out. I did get a chuckle out of the part when the court explains why the contract's dollar cap wasn't unconscionable: "Given the nature of the service, which encourages members to meet in person for sexual encounters, SexSearch’s potential liability is nearly limitless. For example, arrest, diseases of various sorts, and injuries caused by irate family members or others may be the result of such hedonistic sex. When selling such services, then, it is commercially reasonable for SexSearch to limit its liability to the price of the contract."
It's easy to see why the Sixth Circuit was troubled by the 230 issues in this case. This case involves a knotty question that has become a blog perennial: when is a website liable for its marketing representations that are rendered false by user content or actions? In this case, the website said in a variety of ways that users were over 18, but it never authenticated users' ages, and Roe affirmatively lied about her age. As I've mentioned before, this creates a legal conundrum--on the one hand, websites should be responsible for the marketing representations that they choose to make; but on the other hand, this can open up a bypass to 230 as plaintiffs use the marketing representations as a proxy to hold websites liable for third party content. I'm disappointed the Sixth Circuit didn't decide to tackle this issue head-on, but I understand why they chose to sidestep the issue and make clear that they weren't ratifying the district court's rationale.
I noticed that the court also doesn't mention Doe v. MySpace, the recent Fifth Circuit 230 opinion also involving online hook-ups leading to offline statutory rapes. That case turned on a negligence-style "premises liability" theory rather than a breach of contract/false marketing representation theory, but the Sixth Circuit could have tried to equate the two if it wanted (especially in its discussion about "failure to warn").
So, where does this ruling leave us? This ruling, along with the Goddard opinion from earlier this month, reinforces that plaintiffs trying the breach of contract/false marketing representations workaround to 47 USC 230 still have to establish their prima facie substantive case or they will be dismissed (in this case, on a 12b6 motion). Plus, numerous district court cases still hold that 47 USC 230 applies to false marketing representations, including the Mazur and Friendfinder cases from earlier this year. So I think the news remains very, very good for defendants. Nevertheless, I remain confused about the precise boundaries between 47 USC 230 and breach of contract/false marketing representations, and clarity will have to wait until 2009 (or beyond).
Unless something really big happens in the next 36 hours, I'll see you in 2009. Happy new year!
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